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Open3

Open3 grants you access to stdin, stdout, stderr and a thread to wait for the child process when running another program. You can specify various attributes, redirections, current directory, etc., of the program in the same way as for Process.spawn.

  • ::popen3 : pipes for stdin, stdout, stderr

  • ::popen2 : pipes for stdin, stdout

  • ::popen2e : pipes for stdin, merged stdout and stderr

  • ::capture3 : give a string for stdin; get strings for stdout, stderr

  • ::capture2 : give a string for stdin; get a string for stdout

  • ::capture2e : give a string for stdin; get a string for merged stdout and stderr

  • ::pipeline_rw : pipes for first stdin and last stdout of a pipeline

  • ::pipeline_r : pipe for last stdout of a pipeline

  • ::pipeline_w : pipe for first stdin of a pipeline

  • ::pipeline_start : run a pipeline without waiting

  • ::pipeline : run a pipeline and wait for its completion

Public Class Methods

capture2(*cmd, stdin_data: '', binmode: false, **opts) click to toggle source

::capture2 captures the standard output of a command.

stdout_str, status = Open3.capture2([env,] cmd... [, opts])

The arguments env, cmd and opts are passed to ::popen3 except opts and opts. See Process.spawn.

If opts is specified, it is sent to the command’s standard input.

If opts is true, internal pipes are set to binary mode.

Example:

# factor is a command for integer factorization.
o, s = Open3.capture2("factor", :stdin_data=>"42")
p o #=> "42: 2 3 7\n"

# generate x**2 graph in png using gnuplot.
gnuplot_commands = <<"End"
  set terminal png
  plot x**2, "-" with lines
  1 14
  2 1
  3 8
  4 5
  e
End
image, s = Open3.capture2("gnuplot", :stdin_data=>gnuplot_commands, :binmode=>true)
 
               # File open3.rb, line 296
def capture2(*cmd, stdin_data: '', binmode: false, **opts)
  popen2(*cmd, opts) {|i, o, t|
    if binmode
      i.binmode
      o.binmode
    end
    out_reader = Thread.new { o.read }
    i.write stdin_data
    i.close
    [out_reader.value, t.value]
  }
end
            
capture2e(*cmd, stdin_data: '', binmode: false, **opts) click to toggle source

::capture2e captures the standard output and the standard error of a command.

stdout_and_stderr_str, status = Open3.capture2e([env,] cmd... [, opts])

The arguments env, cmd and opts are passed to ::popen3 except opts and opts. See Process.spawn.

If opts is specified, it is sent to the command’s standard input.

If opts is true, internal pipes are set to binary mode.

Example:

# capture make log
make_log, s = Open3.capture2e("make")
 
               # File open3.rb, line 326
def capture2e(*cmd, stdin_data: '', binmode: false, **opts)
  popen2e(*cmd, opts) {|i, oe, t|
    if binmode
      i.binmode
      oe.binmode
    end
    outerr_reader = Thread.new { oe.read }
    i.write stdin_data
    i.close
    [outerr_reader.value, t.value]
  }
end
            
capture3(*cmd, stdin_data: '', binmode: false, **opts) click to toggle source

::capture3 captures the standard output and the standard error of a command.

stdout_str, stderr_str, status = Open3.capture3([env,] cmd... [, opts])

The arguments env, cmd and opts are passed to ::popen3 except opts and opts. See Process.spawn.

If opts is specified, it is sent to the command’s standard input.

If opts is true, internal pipes are set to binary mode.

Examples:

# dot is a command of graphviz.
graph = <<'End'
  digraph g {
    a -> b
  }
End
drawn_graph, dot_log = Open3.capture3("dot -v", :stdin_data=>graph)

o, e, s = Open3.capture3("echo abc; sort >&2", :stdin_data=>"foo\nbar\nbaz\n")
p o #=> "abc\n"
p e #=> "bar\nbaz\nfoo\n"
p s #=> #<Process::Status: pid 32682 exit 0>

# generate a thumbnail image using the convert command of ImageMagick.
# However, if the image is really stored in a file,
# system("convert", "-thumbnail", "80", "png:#{filename}", "png:-") is better
# because of reduced memory consumption.
# But if the image is stored in a DB or generated by the gnuplot Open3.capture2 example,
# Open3.capture3 should be considered.
#
image = File.read("/usr/share/openclipart/png/animals/mammals/sheep-md-v0.1.png", :binmode=>true)
thumbnail, err, s = Open3.capture3("convert -thumbnail 80 png:- png:-", :stdin_data=>image, :binmode=>true)
if s.success?
  STDOUT.binmode; print thumbnail
end
 
               # File open3.rb, line 251
def capture3(*cmd, stdin_data: '', binmode: false, **opts)
  popen3(*cmd, opts) {|i, o, e, t|
    if binmode
      i.binmode
      o.binmode
      e.binmode
    end
    out_reader = Thread.new { o.read }
    err_reader = Thread.new { e.read }
    i.write stdin_data
    i.close
    [out_reader.value, err_reader.value, t.value]
  }
end
            
pipeline(*cmds, **opts) click to toggle source

::pipeline starts a list of commands as a pipeline. It waits for the completion of the commands. No pipes are created for stdin of the first command and stdout of the last command.

status_list = Open3.pipeline(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts])

Each cmd is a string or an array. If it is an array, the elements are passed to Process.spawn.

cmd:
  commandline                              command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, commandline, opts]                 command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, cmdname, arg1, ..., opts]          command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
  [env, [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ..., opts] command name and arguments including argv[0] (no shell)

Note that env and opts are optional, as Process.spawn.

Example:

fname = "/usr/share/man/man1/ruby.1.gz"
p Open3.pipeline(["zcat", fname], "nroff -man", "less")
#=> [#<Process::Status: pid 11817 exit 0>,
#    #<Process::Status: pid 11820 exit 0>,
#    #<Process::Status: pid 11828 exit 0>]

fname = "/usr/share/man/man1/ls.1.gz"
Open3.pipeline(["zcat", fname], "nroff -man", "colcrt")

# convert PDF to PS and send to a printer by lpr
pdf_file = "paper.pdf"
printer = "printer-name"
Open3.pipeline(["pdftops", pdf_file, "-"],
               ["lpr", "-P#{printer}"])

# count lines
Open3.pipeline("sort", "uniq -c", :in=>"names.txt", :out=>"count")

# cyclic pipeline
r,w = IO.pipe
w.print "ibase=14\n10\n"
Open3.pipeline("bc", "tee /dev/tty", :in=>r, :out=>w)
#=> 14
#   18
#   22
#   30
#   42
#   58
#   78
#   106
#   202
 
               # File open3.rb, line 583
def pipeline(*cmds, **opts)
  pipeline_run(cmds, opts, [], []) {|ts|
    ts.map {|t| t.value }
  }
end
            
pipeline_r(*cmds, **opts, &block) click to toggle source

::pipeline_r starts a list of commands as a pipeline with a pipe which connects to stdout of the last command.

Open3.pipeline_r(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts]) {|last_stdout, wait_threads|
  ...
}

last_stdout, wait_threads = Open3.pipeline_r(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts])
...
last_stdout.close

Each cmd is a string or an array. If it is an array, the elements are passed to Process.spawn.

cmd:
  commandline                              command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, commandline, opts]                 command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, cmdname, arg1, ..., opts]          command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
  [env, [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ..., opts] command name and arguments including argv[0] (no shell)

Note that env and opts are optional, as for Process.spawn.

Example:

Open3.pipeline_r("zcat /var/log/apache2/access.log.*.gz",
                 [{"LANG"=>"C"}, "grep", "GET /favicon.ico"],
                 "logresolve") {|o, ts|
  o.each_line {|line|
    ...
  }
}

Open3.pipeline_r("yes", "head -10") {|o, ts|
  p o.read      #=> "y\ny\ny\ny\ny\ny\ny\ny\ny\ny\n"
  p ts[0].value #=> #<Process::Status: pid 24910 SIGPIPE (signal 13)>
  p ts[1].value #=> #<Process::Status: pid 24913 exit 0>
}
 
               # File open3.rb, line 432
def pipeline_r(*cmds, **opts, &block)
  out_r, out_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:out] = out_w

  pipeline_run(cmds, opts, [out_w], [out_r], &block)
end
            
pipeline_rw(*cmds, **opts, &block) click to toggle source

::pipeline_rw starts a list of commands as a pipeline with pipes which connect to stdin of the first command and stdout of the last command.

Open3.pipeline_rw(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts]) {|first_stdin, last_stdout, wait_threads|
  ...
}

first_stdin, last_stdout, wait_threads = Open3.pipeline_rw(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts])
...
first_stdin.close
last_stdout.close

Each cmd is a string or an array. If it is an array, the elements are passed to Process.spawn.

cmd:
  commandline                              command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, commandline, opts]                 command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, cmdname, arg1, ..., opts]          command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
  [env, [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ..., opts] command name and arguments including argv[0] (no shell)

Note that env and opts are optional, as for Process.spawn.

The options to pass to Process.spawn are constructed by merging opts, the last hash element of the array, and specifications for the pipes between each of the commands.

Example:

Open3.pipeline_rw("tr -dc A-Za-z", "wc -c") {|i, o, ts|
  i.puts "All persons more than a mile high to leave the court."
  i.close
  p o.gets #=> "42\n"
}

Open3.pipeline_rw("sort", "cat -n") {|stdin, stdout, wait_thrs|
  stdin.puts "foo"
  stdin.puts "bar"
  stdin.puts "baz"
  stdin.close     # send EOF to sort.
  p stdout.read   #=> "     1\tbar\n     2\tbaz\n     3\tfoo\n"
}
 
               # File open3.rb, line 382
def pipeline_rw(*cmds, **opts, &block)
  in_r, in_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:in] = in_r
  in_w.sync = true

  out_r, out_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:out] = out_w

  pipeline_run(cmds, opts, [in_r, out_w], [in_w, out_r], &block)
end
            
pipeline_start(*cmds, **opts, &block) click to toggle source

::pipeline_start starts a list of commands as a pipeline. No pipes are created for stdin of the first command and stdout of the last command.

Open3.pipeline_start(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts]) {|wait_threads|
  ...
}

wait_threads = Open3.pipeline_start(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts])
...

Each cmd is a string or an array. If it is an array, the elements are passed to Process.spawn.

cmd:
  commandline                              command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, commandline, opts]                 command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, cmdname, arg1, ..., opts]          command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
  [env, [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ..., opts] command name and arguments including argv[0] (no shell)

Note that env and opts are optional, as for Process.spawn.

Example:

# Run xeyes in 10 seconds.
Open3.pipeline_start("xeyes") {|ts|
  sleep 10
  t = ts[0]
  Process.kill("TERM", t.pid)
  p t.value #=> #<Process::Status: pid 911 SIGTERM (signal 15)>
}

# Convert pdf to ps and send it to a printer.
# Collect error message of pdftops and lpr.
pdf_file = "paper.pdf"
printer = "printer-name"
err_r, err_w = IO.pipe
Open3.pipeline_start(["pdftops", pdf_file, "-"],
                     ["lpr", "-P#{printer}"],
                     :err=>err_w) {|ts|
  err_w.close
  p err_r.read # error messages of pdftops and lpr.
}
 
               # File open3.rb, line 521
def pipeline_start(*cmds, **opts, &block)
  if block
    pipeline_run(cmds, opts, [], [], &block)
  else
    ts, = pipeline_run(cmds, opts, [], [])
    ts
  end
end
            
pipeline_w(*cmds, **opts, &block) click to toggle source

::pipeline_w starts a list of commands as a pipeline with a pipe which connects to stdin of the first command.

Open3.pipeline_w(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts]) {|first_stdin, wait_threads|
  ...
}

first_stdin, wait_threads = Open3.pipeline_w(cmd1, cmd2, ... [, opts])
...
first_stdin.close

Each cmd is a string or an array. If it is an array, the elements are passed to Process.spawn.

cmd:
  commandline                              command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, commandline, opts]                 command line string which is passed to a shell
  [env, cmdname, arg1, ..., opts]          command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
  [env, [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ..., opts] command name and arguments including argv[0] (no shell)

Note that env and opts are optional, as for Process.spawn.

Example:

Open3.pipeline_w("bzip2 -c", :out=>"/tmp/hello.bz2") {|i, ts|
  i.puts "hello"
}
 
               # File open3.rb, line 468
def pipeline_w(*cmds, **opts, &block)
  in_r, in_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:in] = in_r
  in_w.sync = true

  pipeline_run(cmds, opts, [in_r], [in_w], &block)
end
            
popen2(*cmd, **opts, &block) click to toggle source

::popen2 is similar to ::popen3 except that it doesn't create a pipe for the standard error stream.

Block form:

Open3.popen2([env,] cmd... [, opts]) {|stdin, stdout, wait_thr|
  pid = wait_thr.pid # pid of the started process.
  ...
  exit_status = wait_thr.value # Process::Status object returned.
}

Non-block form:

stdin, stdout, wait_thr = Open3.popen2([env,] cmd... [, opts])
...
stdin.close  # stdin and stdout should be closed explicitly in this form.
stdout.close

See Process.spawn for the optional hash arguments env and opts.

Example:

Open3.popen2("wc -c") {|i,o,t|
  i.print "answer to life the universe and everything"
  i.close
  p o.gets #=> "42\n"
}

Open3.popen2("bc -q") {|i,o,t|
  i.puts "obase=13"
  i.puts "6 * 9"
  p o.gets #=> "42\n"
}

Open3.popen2("dc") {|i,o,t|
  i.print "42P"
  i.close
  p o.read #=> "*"
}
 
               # File open3.rb, line 137
def popen2(*cmd, **opts, &block)
  in_r, in_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:in] = in_r
  in_w.sync = true

  out_r, out_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:out] = out_w

  popen_run(cmd, opts, [in_r, out_w], [in_w, out_r], &block)
end
            
popen2e(*cmd, **opts, &block) click to toggle source

::popen2e is similar to ::popen3 except that it merges the standard output stream and the standard error stream.

Block form:

Open3.popen2e([env,] cmd... [, opts]) {|stdin, stdout_and_stderr, wait_thr|
  pid = wait_thr.pid # pid of the started process.
  ...
  exit_status = wait_thr.value # Process::Status object returned.
}

Non-block form:

stdin, stdout_and_stderr, wait_thr = Open3.popen2e([env,] cmd... [, opts])
...
stdin.close  # stdin and stdout_and_stderr should be closed explicitly in this form.
stdout_and_stderr.close

See Process.spawn for the optional hash arguments env and opts.

Example:

# check gcc warnings
source = "foo.c"
Open3.popen2e("gcc", "-Wall", source) {|i,oe,t|
  oe.each {|line|
    if /warning/ =~ line
      ...
    end
  }
}
 
               # File open3.rb, line 180
def popen2e(*cmd, **opts, &block)
  in_r, in_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:in] = in_r
  in_w.sync = true

  out_r, out_w = IO.pipe
  opts[[:out, :err]] = out_w

  popen_run(cmd, opts, [in_r, out_w], [in_w, out_r], &block)
end
            
popen3(*cmd, **opts, &block) click to toggle source

Open stdin, stdout, and stderr streams and start external executable. In addition, a thread to wait for the started process is created. The thread has a pid method and a thread variable :pid which is the pid of the started process.

Block form:

Open3.popen3([env,] cmd... [, opts]) {|stdin, stdout, stderr, wait_thr|
  pid = wait_thr.pid # pid of the started process.
  ...
  exit_status = wait_thr.value # Process::Status object returned.
}

Non-block form:

stdin, stdout, stderr, wait_thr = Open3.popen3([env,] cmd... [, opts])
pid = wait_thr[:pid]  # pid of the started process
...
stdin.close  # stdin, stdout and stderr should be closed explicitly in this form.
stdout.close
stderr.close
exit_status = wait_thr.value  # Process::Status object returned.

The parameters env, cmd, and opts are passed to Process.spawn. A commandline string and a list of argument strings can be accepted as follows:

Open3.popen3("echo abc") {|i, o, e, t| ... }
Open3.popen3("echo", "abc") {|i, o, e, t| ... }
Open3.popen3(["echo", "argv0"], "abc") {|i, o, e, t| ... }

If the last parameter, opts, is a Hash, it is recognized as an option for Process.spawn.

Open3.popen3("pwd", :chdir=>"/") {|i,o,e,t|
  p o.read.chomp #=> "/"
}

wait_thr.value waits for the termination of the process. The block form also waits for the process when it returns.

Closing stdin, stdout and stderr does not wait for the process to complete.

You should be careful to avoid deadlocks. Since pipes are fixed length buffers, ::popen3(“prog”) {|i, o, e, t| o.read } deadlocks if the program generates too much output on stderr. You should read stdout and stderr simultaneously (using threads or IO.select). However, if you don’t need stderr output, you can use ::popen2. If merged stdout and stderr output is not a problem, you can use ::popen2e. If you really need stdout and stderr output as separate strings, you can consider ::capture3.

 
               # File open3.rb, line 82
def popen3(*cmd, **opts, &block)
  in_r, in_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:in] = in_r
  in_w.sync = true

  out_r, out_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:out] = out_w

  err_r, err_w = IO.pipe
  opts[:err] = err_w

  popen_run(cmd, opts, [in_r, out_w, err_w], [in_w, out_r, err_r], &block)
end
            

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